All studies show higher rates of ill health, however measured, both psychological (Warr 1984, 1985; Heady and Smyth 1989) and physical (Moylan et al. 1984; Cook et al. 1982; Bartley 1988; White 1991) in women and men who are unemployed. However, there is continuing debate about the meaning of this association (Gravelle 1985; Cook and Shaper 1984; Bartley 1994). Ill health may predispose men to lose their jobs (Stern 1983); it would be economically rational for managers to select those with poor health records when reducing the size of their work force. During a time of recession, health is obviously a lesser consideration in job loss-the vast majority of lay-offs and redundancies take place because of a general decline in the demand for labour. Health may still play a role, however, in the likelihood of reemployment (Morris and Cook 1991).