New appointments made the Court more predictably liberal during the decade of the sixties. The resignations of Justices Frankfurter and Whittaker in 1962 gave President John F. Kennedy two vacancies to fi ll. He replaced Whittaker with Byron R. White, a former Rhodes Scholar and deputy attorney general. White, who had no previous judicial experience, had worked hard for Kennedy’s election, and his appointment was a reward for services rendered. Though considered a liberal Democrat, he turned out to be moderately conservative on the bench and a staunch opponent of judicial activism. Frankfurter’s place was taken by Secretary of Labor Arthur J. Goldberg, a highly successful labor lawyer and an early Kennedy supporter. He was an unqualifi ed liberal and did not subscribe to the judicial self-restraint philosophy of his predecessor. His appointment created a solid liberal majority on the Court. Frankfurter’s retirement cost the conservatives more than just a vote. His towering intellect and brilliant analytical skills would be sorely missed. The great jurist’s departure cleared the way for a more activist Court.