This chapter assesses these perspectives and seeks to contribute to the literature on regional reactions to China’s rise. It does so by providing an empirically based evaluation of how much fear key regional actors in Northeast Asia – Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan – exhibit concerning China’s rise. The structure of the chapter is as follows. First, a review will chart the perspectives of some of the key participants in the academic literature. We will highlight the key factors that analysts focus on in their assessments of why China’s rise should, or (as the case may be) should not, generate fear in regional states. Then, we examine empirical survey data over the last decade as it relates to views of China’s rise in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Finally, we evaluate the various perspectives in the academic literature in light of the empirical evidence.