In papers spanning the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, Anthony Leeds (1994) offered both critique and re-orientation to the self-identified subfield of urban anthropology. Leeds insisted that urban society begins with formation of the *state, and includes all interlocked specialized sites (of food production, mining, administration, exchange, education, worship, etc.), whether located in countryside or city. He directed attention to translocal processes like taxation and trade, and to extra-local control of *land tenure, labour markets and military force. It was to regional and transnational flows of labour, *commodities, credit, information and cash that Leeds urged scrutiny from all anthropologists working in complex soci eties, and which he illuminated in his own writings on Brazil and Portugal.