With the considerable resources that the national reviews once again released for
school science, a number of projects and research studies began in many countries.
These processes were greatly assisted by the fact that science education, by the
early 1980s, had become an established and active field of scholarly research. This
meant that the projects in the 1980s had a much sounder base for their develop-
ment than the ideas from general psychological learning theory that had been
almost the only theoretical underpinning for learning science in the 1960s.