The central theme of this chapter is the nature and role of science, technology and innovation (STI) policies in developing countries. Perhaps paradoxically, a good deal of attention is given to the formulation and implementation of innovation policies in developed, Western economies, for reasons which will become clear as we proceed. Most notably because the focus and content of STI policy has changed fundamentally in the past two decades. Three themes dominate our discussion:
labour between multiple kinds of knowledge and multiple organisational sources of knowledge; and
The importance of this topic for the achievement of international competitiveness and industrial development should not be underestimated. Competition and development are knowledge-driven processes and the conditions and contexts in which knowledge is accumulated and applied in the modern world are changing rapidly.