This chapter is directed at identifying the role and effects of national policies specifically directed at trade. It will first examine briefly the evolution of our understanding of the relation between trade and development. It must then look at the policy and economic constraints and opportunities for country policy which are created by the international environment. After this background, it will examine the trade policies available within a country. A section on ‘The role of national policies’ will examine the role of international policy and the possibilities available to a country to influence it, before concluding with an assessment of the policies available.