This chapter reviews the different research methods, commenting on their utility, safety, ethics, and governance. It discusses natural analogues for geoengineering, such as the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo and the observation of ship tracks, highlighting both their utility in learning about the effects of geoengineering and their limits in providing knowledge. The chapter demonstrates, geoengineering research is inseparable from climate research. Climate models are an obvious tool for geoengineering research. In these models, it is possible to perturb the climate system with various patterns of stratospheric aerosol injection or marine cloud brightening and investigate the climate system response. The scientists conducting the research are climate scientists. Climate models continue to be developed in centres around the world as a representation of our best knowledge about how the climate system works. Transparent research on geoengineering is an essential part of the discussion wherein the benefits and risks of geoengineering can be determined.