Language socialization research investigates how children and other novices are socialized through language, and how they socialize others, as they learn to use language via interac tions with more knowledgeable relatives and friends. This approach considers linguistic and cultural learning to be interrelated processes that extend from infancy throughout the life span. Employing longitudinal ethnographic research methods, language socialization researchers explore how novices actively gain communicative competence as they acquire linguistic form, discursive practices, embodied stances, and the ideologies that render them meaningful within their cultural contexts. The first wave of language socialization research examined such processes in monolingual societies. A second wave of research extended this approach to the study of multilingual speech practices and language contact phenomena (Garrett and BaquedanoLópez 2002). This essay reviews the development and central concerns of the language socialization paradigm. It then examines current work on language socialization in multilingual settings, situ ations of language shift and migration, and in peer contexts.