The history of the relationship between critical theory and Marxism has been an ambiguous one. On the one hand, there have been those who have af rmed an axiomatic connection: i.e. Marxism as the critical theory of capitalist society. In this regard Marxism has tended to be viewed as a totalizing discourse under which all possible forms of social critique can be subsumed (e.g. the problems of class, race and gender all boil down to capitalist exploitation). On the other hand, there are those who argue that critical theory represents an evolving (postmodern) intellectual tradition that, in rejecting all forms of naturalism and necessity, cannot be reconciled with Marxist thought and, moreover, renders the latter redundant.