Transferring competences across borders
Interpreters were present at all meetings, although a mixture of English and Russian was used to communicate. Many participants found it difficult to apply some of the course ideas to the Russian context but they recognised that there was much to learn from the experience of British healthcare managers. An analysis of the Russian participants' responses to the questionnaire showed that at least 11 of the 16 Russian respondents considered that they had 'no competence' or 'very limited competence' on every one of the 40 competences. In relation to 34 of the 40 competences, more than three-quarters of the Russian respondents who could make gains in competence considered that they had done so. In I. Grugulis's words, the represents the use of competences in a 'descriptive' rather than in a 'normative' way. Even so, the analysis of a manager's job in terms of separate competences underplays the importance of being able to integrate these skills in addressing real-life management problems.