Goal setting in sport injury rehabilitation
Since the original work of Locke and Latham (1985), goal setting has become one of the most popular and widely used psychological interventions in sport and is often implemented by athletes with the aim of improving performance (Weinberg and Gould, 2011). Research has identified three different types of goals; namely outcome, performance and process goals (for example, Cox, 2007; Hardy, Jones and Gould, 1996). Outcome goals are usually focused on the outcome of an event such as winning or earning a medal and involve interpersonal comparison. In contrast, performance goals often involve intrapersonal assessment, as they are typically focused on achieving a particular level of performance in comparison to one’s previous performances and not to that of other competitors. Process goals are focused on the actions and required tasks in which an individual must engage to achieve the desired performance outcome (for example, Cox, 2007; Hardy et al., 1996;Weinberg and Gould, 2011). According to Cox (2007), when all outcome, performance and process goals are used in combination, athletes are more likely to experience higher levels of performance improvement and psychological development in comparison to when different goals (for example, outcome goals) are used in isolation.