This work on paths to democracy began with a method: the comparative historical analysis of the paths to democracy taken by three fertile cases – France, Russia and Germany – guided by hypotheses to include those from the discipline of politics and structured around the major political events of revolution, totalitarianism and democracy. The three fertile cases have each been shown ‘wrapped in hypotheses’ (Walton 1992) and, therefore, mutually valuable as controls. On the broadest level, Russia has been shown to contrast with France and Germany in respect of democracy; Germany with France and Russia in respect of revolution; and France with the Soviet Union and Germany in respect of totalitarianism. Each path has revealed additional examples of democracy or attempts to achieve democracy which have failed. The cases of Britain, America and Italy have also added to understanding both through providing extra controls and suggesting additional hypotheses.