‘Black international business’ – critical issues and ethical dilemmas
In this chapter, we explore the ‘darker’ faces of international business (IB). Over a decade ago, Eden and Lenway (2001) raised the need for examining both the ‘bright’ and the ‘dark’ side of globalization in order to achieve a better understanding of the concept and of its impact on IB activities. In doing this, they posited the multinational enterprise (MNE) as the ‘key agent’ and ‘face’ of globalization and discussed, primarily, the relationship between MNEs and nation-states as the central interface of its impact. Additionally, they posited that, by and large, the community of IB scholars positioned themselves at the bright end of the globalization spectrum, seeing it as essentially positive, whilst most non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and international political economy (IPE) academics set themselves at the dark end. Whilst they acknowledged their own ‘bright side’ tendencies, they called for a more nuanced consideration of MNEs as what they referred to as the ‘Janus face’ of globalization.