chapter  11
19 Pages

A Cluster of the Four Coal Mining Cities in Korea from a Global Perspective: How Did the People Overcome a Crisis After a Massive Closure of Mines?


Some coal mines were discovered as early as in the 1600s, and the coal industry became the backbone of the Industrial Revolution. As coal is a fossil fuel for generating energy and producing various chemicals and other materials, the coal industry developed in tandem with steel and chemical industries. This facilitated the industrial developments during the modernization process of many countries around the world (Kovalchuk 2002).