Cities, Regions and Competitiveness
The notion of competitiveness has become pervasive sequences of competitive success for diﬀerent social in urban, regional, and national economic analysis and groups and areas (inequality). policy during the last decade. However, its proliﬁc use The structure of the paper is as follows. The next has outstripped coherent deﬁnition or robust evidence two sections outline why competitiveness has become of its validity. In fact, the term is far from straight-such a widespread concern among local, regional and forward and has been used in many diﬀerent ways and national authorities. The third and fourth sections contexts. The purpose of this paper is to review and consider the functions of overt competition between provide a preliminary assessment of some of the main places involving public organizations. The following interpretations of the concept, particularly as they apply three sections explore the changing sources of and to cities and regions. Two key questions explored are: obstacles to urban and regional competitiveness involvin what sense do such places compete, and what are ing ﬁrms. The conclusion provides some reﬂections on their underlying sources of competitive advantage in the most recent ideas. contemporary advanced economies?