chapter  11
FRANK L. RIZZO AND THE WHITENING OF ITALIAN AMERICANS IN PHILADELPHIA
WithSTEFANO LUCONI
Pages 15

In the 1980s, the Dougherty Irish Dancers, a fraternal group active in the Philadelphia area, dropped nationality requirements for enrollment and came to include not only members of Irish extraction but also individuals of German, Jewish, Polish, and Italian ancestry. It was initially established as an ethnic association that intended to use Irish dances to distinguish Irish Americans from other immigrant minorities. However, the Dougherty Irish Dancers progressively reached out to different national groups and eventually turned into a social club for Americans of European backgrounds, regardless of the country of birth of their forefathers.1