The Player’s Tactical Knowledge
In a study on the formative evaluation practices of physical education teachers, Gréhaigne, Billard, Guillon, and Roche (1988) registered and analyzed the didactic communications of teachers during sequences of play. They noted that these communications contained orders and rules given from the edge of the playing surface during game situations. However, in the teachers’ comments at the end of the sequence, nothing was said in connection with such rules or advice. Gréhaigne and his colleagues believe that rules and advice constituted declarative knowledge about the game at hand but that such knowledge had to be more systematically and formally identiﬁed (Marsenach & Mérand, 1987).