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PART IV Current and prospective responses
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Implicit in the foregoing arguments about the origins, interpretations and case studies of TOC is a broader controversy in criminological thought over the appropriate conceptualisation of crime and control. At the root of this controversy is a dialogue about the limits of gauging policy change and learning in terms of criminal justice and its enforcement. In one sense it is banal to question the centrality of criminal justice as, by definitional fiat, practices only become ‘crimes’ when they are proscribed by various criminal legal codes. Yet the limitations of law enforcement as a means of actually controlling practices thus criminalised have been regularly noted in contributions to the first three parts of this book.