Collaboration on industrial change in construction: On why Scandinavian union approaches are still modern
Abstract Technological, organisational and management changes put continual pressure on industrial relations (IR), people and cultures in construction. Scandinavian unions have developed responses to these changes in a characteristic three-level fashion. At the first level, the individual employee is the point of departure. Next comes formal cooperation at company level. And thirdly, cooperation at national level is carried out in a long-term collaborative three-party arrangement often labelled corporatism. The unions have maintained a high level of unionisation, and have been able both to defend co-determination in the workplace and to maintain influence on state policy and labour market issues.