Paths to Americanization in postwar Japan
This chapter considers the process of Americanization in management methods used in Japanese companies in the postwar period. Such a process can be divided into three distinct paths of diffusion. Each of these paths represents a different combination of the roles played by American and Japanese governments, private businesses, industry organizations and professional organizations. They also differ in the extent to which initiative and leadership were located on the side of the provider or the recipient of information and technology.