It is important to remember that the user encounters these three layers of the interface as one thing and that at the level of practice it is unnecessary to make what are, after all, analytical distinctions. Such distinctions become important in reﬂecting upon practice. It is here, often in theoretically informed writing, that we understand that the human-computer interface (HCI) is not simply an outcome of a technology, but a complex outcome of technological development and cultural modes of communication. This leads us to say that there is no necessary relationship between computer technology and the design and function of interfaces and that the relationship between them is a matter of convention and preference. New media practitioners do not always use a software application for the purposes it was designed and graphical user interfaces can also ‘get in the way’ of the user’s needs.