Speaking is undoubtedly the most complex thing that people routinely do. Consider an utterance as simple as, “Illinois is ﬂat”. It takes less than 2 s to move one’s articulatory organs through the sequence of gestures needed to produce this sentence. Yet, the mental operations leading up to its articulation call on a bewildering variety of knowledge sources and processing mechanisms. Although these operations are only beginning to be understood, the last 25 years has seen much progress, and it is now possible to give a rough outline of the production process (see Bock, 1995, for a review).