This chapter assesses and analyzes the evolution of regional peace and security cooperation in Central Africa over the last ten years. The central focus is on the major problems challenging the effectiveness and efﬁciency of cooperation and its implementation. The ﬁrst section provides an overview of the evolving role of ECCAS for Central African peace and security. A second section analyzes more precisely the regional operations of FOMUC and MICOPAX, deployed for a decade in the CAR as a regional response to rising insecurity and instability. A third section, ﬁnally, discusses the major challenges that affect the realization and effectiveness of the Central African regional approach to peace and security.