Military security alone has become increasingly inadequate. Thus, international cooperation tries to address different forms of security, such as military, economic, environmental, health, and political security. The European Security Strategy (ESS), adopting this inclusive approach to security, underlines ﬁve key security threats: terrorism, WMD, failed states, organized crime and regional conflicts. Linked to these, according to the ESS, there are four priority areas for cooperation: peace and security, governance and human rights, trade and integration, and development. This is envisioned in the EU security strategy as a comprehensive security (CS) approach, which consists of military intervention, supporting political reform, economic cooperation and development aid, and environmental issues, such as climate change and desertiﬁcation. The objective of this chapter is to explore how comprehensive the EU’s CS concept in Africa actually is.