The security landscape of post-independence Africa is replete with conflicts and other security threats. In the post-Cold War era, African states witnessed high incidences of intra-state conﬂicts that resulted in several cases of state implosion. These internal conﬂicts, or “new wars”, were characterized by a blurring of the lines between war, organized crime and large-scale human rights violations, which distinguished them from earlier conventional civil wars (Kaldor, 1999). However, in recent years, there has been a decline in armed conﬂicts, in Africa due to signiﬁcant efforts by African and international engagements in conflict prevention, management, and resolution. The security landscape has changed. “While armed conﬂicts have been the single most devastating security challenge for the African continent, new and emerging security challenges are being superimposed on them – what might be termed ‘old’ challenges” (Aning 2011a: 149).