The German Ideology comprises the manuscripts that Karl Marx and Frederick Engels wrote together in 1845/1846. In these manuscripts historical materialism was ﬁrst established. Since the ﬁrst chapter was published by Rjazanov in 1926 several editions have appeared. In the manuscripts, the ﬁrst draft was largely written in Engels’s hand and was then revised by Marx and Engels. Thus the authorial state of the manuscripts is very complicated. The publishing history of The German Ideology has been one of attempts to restore the manuscripts completely. However, in spite of repeated improvements, a complete restoration has not yet been realised. Many problems still remain to be solved in editing The German Ideology.