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at elections, nor his right of access to the

The aggregate income from private gifts will be widely different, according as we regard individuals or families as income-receivers. For in the former case all the purchasing power, which one member of a family derives from work, property or civil rights, and transfers to, or devotes to the benefit of, other members, will be income from private gifts to those other members, while in the latter case it will be income to the family from work, property or civil rights, as the case may be. It seems more convenient here to regard the family, and not the individual, as the income-receiver, and this leads us to adopt the lower estimate of aggregate income from private gifts.