Neurohormonal Regulation of Gastric Mucosal Growth
The epithelial cells in the mucosa of the stomach are continuously renewed. Just as in the rest of the gastrointestinal tract, there is continuous proliferative activity of progenitor cells in the gastric glands which compensates for cell losses from the mucosal surface and maintains a morphological steady state. Self replication of well differentiated cells or differentiation from progenitor cells are alternative pathways by which more specialized cells in the deeper segments of the gastric glands are replaced. Increased mitotic activity or differentiation, producing more young cells, as well as prolonged survival of existing elements, are likely to produce hyperplasia of specific cell populations. Conversely, a negative imbalance between cell production and cell loss may result in mucosal ulcerations or atrophy.