"Aren’t We All a Little Bisexual?": The Recognition of Bisexuality in an Unlikely Place
From early youth, and throughout young adulthood, boys and men are encouraged to participate in team sports (cf. Latinen & Tiihonen, 1990; Mills, 1997; O’Donnell, Walters, & Wardlow, 1998). Here, they are structured into a desire to be associated with hegemonic sexual and gender dominance by partaking in a sporting culture that uses violence and homophobia to sculpt bodies and shape identities to align with the culturally dominant heteromasculine form (Anderson, 2005). In other words, team sport participation is understood to provide boys with opportunities to establish and display a heterosexual form of hypermasculinity (Pascoe, 2003; Ricciardelli, McCabe, & Ridge, 2006). Competitive team sports (such as soccer) therefore exist as a microcosm of society’s sexual and gendered values, myths and prejudices about the variations in men and women, while also actively constructing men to exhibit, value and reproduce traditional notions of heteromasculinity (Britton & Williams, 1995; Burstyn, 1999; Burton-Nelson, 1994; Messner, 1992).