"Josh Wears Pink Cleats": Inclusive Masculinity on the Soccer Field
Soccer occupies a prominent position in the global sporting hierarchy. Heavily imbued with notions of hegemonic masculinity (Harris, 2009), it is a physical culture that centers on the domination of other men and the subordination of women (Clayton, 2005; Parker, 2001). In the United States, however, soccer’s lesser-than status means that it is not as much at the center of athletic masculinity as other competitive sports. Anderson (2005) suggests that this permits men in the sport to express more inclusive attitudes than
American football or basketball players. But, despite the fact that soccer is characterized by more fluid gender roles in the United States (Messner, 2009), it still retains the structure of an invasion sport, and players are increasingly masculinized the higher they progress.