ABSTRACT It is necessary to move beyond the marginalization of the global South towards a
perspective that takes it as a relational, generative, and agentive site within world politics.
Indonesia is an instructive case in this regard: its participation in various multilateral peace
projects constitutes a narrative of Southern agency that runs counter to dominant accounts of
contemporary global governance. The dominant methodologies of peacekeeping, worked out
through various iterations into a project of liberal governance, have been deeply implicated
in many sets of illiberal relations. This illiberal side to the ‘liberal peace’ can be seen in the
ways particular North-South relations have been structured into peace governance, as well
as its instrumentalization by powerful domestic elements of Southern states. This is well
exemplified by the Indonesian case, whose postcolonial transitions have been caught up in
problematic civil-military relations, with both its governments and armed forces deriving
various types of support from the international community at various times. Following the
Cold War, and especially post-Suharto, these have intertwined with matters of ethno-religious
violence, military authority, democratization, and the rise of political Islam. Indonesia’s
participation in global liberal governance interventions raises questions about peace
operations as a world-ordering technology.