Building Cooperation for Non-proliferation and Disarmament The role of the IAEA 123 Stronger protocols 125 Political challenges 126 Resource constraints 128 Verification innovations 129 Multinationalising the fuel cycle 132 EU policies 135 Cooperative policy tools 136 CTBT and non-proliferation 141 Conclusion 144
The role of the IAEA The IAEA is a vital global agency for monitoring compliance with non-proliferation safeguards. The agency has scored
important successes in identifying nuclear cheating and helping to implement disarmament and non-proliferation goals. In Iraq in the 1990s the IAEA identified and dismantled Iraq’s nuclear-
weapons facilities; in 2002 when inspections resumed the
agency verified that Iraq had no nuclear weapons or production
facilities. In North Korea the agency discovered violations of IAEA safeguards agreements and the development of reprocessing capabilities beyond those admitted by the Pyongyang
regime. In recent years the agency traced uranium isotopes on equipment in Libya to the nuclear smuggling syndicate of A.Q. Khan. The IAEA has exposed questionable nuclear activities in Iran and pressured the regime to comply fully with inspections protocols and negotiated agreements. In these and other tasks the agency has been indispensable in monitoring global compliance with non-proliferation agreements.