Digitized Government in Worldwide Municipalities between 2003 and 2007
The near universal adoption of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is altering the organization and delivery of public goods and services-most notably expanding the use of the Web and the Internet to advance digitized government. The Internet is also a convenient mechanism through which government can
conduct citizen-participation exercises with the potential to decentralize decision-making and enable the possibility of e-democracy. According to Korac-Kakabadse and Korac-Kakabadse (1999), information and communication technology holds the possibility for direct-democracy on a large scale, allowing for greater government transparency and openness, leading to a better informed citizenry. The new focus on e-democracy can be attributed partly to the lack of performance by the old technologies (Shane, 2002). That is, where early discussions of the technology-democracy relationship highlighted the potential of telecommunications, with an emphasis on cable television
and telephone conferencing (Arterton, 1987, 1988; Becker, 1993; Christopher, 1989), the focus has now shifted significantly to the Internet (Bellamy & Taylor, 1998; Browning, 2002; Gattiker, 2001; Kamarck & Nye, 1999, 2003).