chapter  1
31 Pages


One must begin somewhere. Perhaps there is no beginning, and the search will lead in circles. Most International Relations scholars have not begun far enough back or, switching metaphors, gone deep enough to say. Instead they share in the common judgment of social scientists that one begins on the ground, with data (Glaser and Strauss 1967: 1). Already dug into the ground are foundations, "'foundations of knowledge' - truths that are certain because of their causes rather than because of the arguments given for them ... " (Rorty 1979: 157; see generally pp. 155-164; Connolly 1986: 116-126). These foundations are ancient and durable. They were laid in Classical Greece, and they are used today to erect conceptual frameworks and construct theories.