Agricultural Groundwater Management in Andhra Pradesh, India: A Focus on Free Electricity Policy and its Reform
The signiﬁcance of groundwater in Indian agriculture is reﬂected by the fact that it
accounts for 60% of irrigation requirements (Shah, 2007). Its contribution in the economy
has been estimated at 10% of India’s gross domestic product (World Bank & Government
of India, 1998). Its signiﬁcance is exempliﬁed by Repetto’s (1994) assertion that the Indian
Green Revolution in wheat is in fact a tubewell revolution rather than a wheat revolution.
Studies suggest that groundwater irrigated farms have 1.2 to three times higher output than
those of surface water (Dhawan, 1989). In this context, the promotion of groundwater
irrigation has been quite vigorous in the past few decades in India. This in turn has led to
rapid extraction of groundwater resources across the country.