Triple Jeopardy and Beyond: Multiple Minority Stress and Resilience Among Black Lesbians
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KEYWORDS. Resilience, black lesbians, multiple minority stress, mundane stress

More than three decades ago, Beale (1970) described the experience of Black1 women living in a racist and sexist society as one of double jeopardy. Since then, with the exception of Black lesbian feminists (e.g., Lorde, 1984; Parker & Jones, 1999; Smith, 1983), few psychologists have examined the experiences of Black lesbians. Notable exceptions are Greene (e.g., 1994; Greene, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000) who has written prolifically about the “triple jeopardy” that lesbians of color experience, and Mays and Cochran (1988; Mays, Cochran, & Rhue, 1993; Peplau, Cochran, & Mays, 1997), who have researched intimate relationships among Black lesbians. Others have explored the challenges that Black lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGBs) experience in terms of racism within predominantly White LGB communities; heterosexism in mainstream and Black communities; and integrating their racial and sexual identities (e.g., Battle, Cohen, Warren, Fergerson, & Audam, 2002; Gutierrez, 1992; Icard, 1986; Icard, Longres, & Williams, 1996; Loiacano, 1989; Manalansan, 1996; Paradis, 1997; Stepakoff & Bowleg, 1998).