chapter
Triple Jeopardy and Beyond: Multiple Minority Stress and Resilience Among Black Lesbians
Pages 22

KEYWORDS. Resilience, black lesbians, multiple minority stress, mundane stress

More than three decades ago, Beale (1970) described the experience of Black1 women living in a racist and sexist society as one of double jeopardy. Since then, with the exception of Black lesbian feminists (e.g., Lorde, 1984; Parker & Jones, 1999; Smith, 1983), few psychologists have examined the experiences of Black lesbians. Notable exceptions are Greene (e.g., 1994; Greene, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000) who has written prolifically about the “triple jeopardy” that lesbians of color experience, and Mays and Cochran (1988; Mays, Cochran, & Rhue, 1993; Peplau, Cochran, & Mays, 1997), who have researched intimate relationships among Black lesbians. Others have explored the challenges that Black lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGBs) experience in terms of racism within predominantly White LGB communities; heterosexism in mainstream and Black communities; and integrating their racial and sexual identities (e.g., Battle, Cohen, Warren, Fergerson, & Audam, 2002; Gutierrez, 1992; Icard, 1986; Icard, Longres, & Williams, 1996; Loiacano, 1989; Manalansan, 1996; Paradis, 1997; Stepakoff & Bowleg, 1998).