INTRODUCTION Laryngeal carcinoma is the most common site of malignancy in the head and neck worldwide. The effects of the disease process and the treatment can have signicant impact on voice and swallow function and quality of life. Recent advances in the surgical and non-surgical management options, with a burgeoning evidence base, have led to a sea change in the management of laryngeal cancer in the last decade. This chapter will deal with the principles of assessment, diagnosis and management of laryngeal precancer and cancer. The ner aspects of endoscopic, open and robotic surgery for laryngeal cancer merit detailed treatment and are dealt with elsewhere in the book.