chapter  23
Anatomy as applied to transoral surgery
ByMark Puvanendran, Andrew Harris
Pages 10

INTRODUCTION Anatomy is traditionally taught through an outside-toinside approach. Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) and transoral robotic surgery (TORS) challenge this classical view, necessitating a 3-dimensional appreciation of the relevant anatomy from a counter-intuitive, inside-out approach. This is particularly important as tumour and/ or surgical instrumentation such as retractors or endoscopes distort the normal anatomy. While other chapters within this reference text offer the conventional anatomic approach, the aim of this chapter is to focus on head and neck anatomy relevant for TLM and TORS, with special relevance to the vascular anatomy as seen from a transoral perspective.