INTRODUCTION The clinical management of swallowing disorders has evolved over the last four decades to include ongoing development of compensatory and rehabilitative interventions designed to increase swallowing efficiency and safety. Initially, the clinical approach to managing swallowing disorders was largely characterized by strategies to compensate for impaired peripheral motor function. Many of these techniques remain a valuable asset in the clinical armamentarium for the short-term management of disordered swallowing. Since then, multidisciplinary clinicians and researchers have developed ever-increasing sophistication and specificity in the diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia. As diagnostic specificity is increasing, we are no longer applying traditional treatment approaches to patients in a ‘one size fits all’ approach.