chapter  15
15 Pages

Buffer states

Greek–Turkish framing on the EU externalisation policy of refugee management
WithDimitris Christopoulos, Georgia Spyropoulou

The initial adoption of a generous welcoming policy, primarily by Germany and other member states, was soon abandoned to be replaced by a policy of deterrence, inducing the adoption, on behalf of the European Union (EU), of a security mindset – controlling rather than protecting refugees. The security and deterrence measures reached a peak on 18 March 2016. The EU–Turkey Statement, also known as the EU–Turkey Agreement, has become one of the major tools in halting the refugee flows, while turning Greece and Turkey into buffer zones. Turkey formulated its international protection legislation in 2014. The Aliens and International Protection Act created a new regime for non-European refugees, classifying them as ‘conditional refugees’, granting them the right to reside legally in the country and allowing them to have access to national healthcare and education. Fleeing individuals entering from the Evros border receive a different treatment from those coming across the sea from Turkey.