Realism in international relations assumes that national security ranks at the top in the hierarchy in inter-state affairs and regards conflict in the international arena as inevitable and continuous due to the competing national interests of states. Since the beginning of the 2000s, Turkey’s rapidly growing economy has attracted the attention of the Greek investors. European Union (EU), according to constructivism, through interaction Turkey and Greece can learn how to cooperate, creating new identities which may lead to amicable relations. The EU provided a significant impetus to Turkish–Greek civil society dialogue by contributing funds to facilitate interaction between municipalities, artists and universities. The broadcasting of Turkish television series in Greece and increased interest in the Turkish language in Greece and Greek language in Turkey are factors supporting social rapprochement as well as the product of the process. Turkey and Greece have cooperated on a number of energy-related issues.