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at large he paid out the legacies of Tiberius

Apparently he justified this behaviour by a theory of divine right. He had Julian blood, and the Principate belonged to the Julian branch of the imperial family. The house whose continuing welfare was the object of Caesar-worship was the Julian : it was the domus divina. And Gaius emphasized the Julian connexion with divinity. Very early in his reign (August, 37) he dedicated the Temple of the Deified Augustus with great eclat; he stressed his relationship with the deified Julians (Julius and Augustus) and dissociated himself from the undeified Claudians. Then he claimed divinity for himself by announcing himself a god-ruler, a veritable Hellenistic monarch. Perhaps he planned to convert the Principate into an oriental monarchy. His intimate adviser, the oriental prince Herod Agrippa I, may have given him these notions: that is, if the direct descendant of l\Iark Antony needed a councillor in such matters. Just like an oriental monarch, Gaius is said to have committed incest with his sisters, and the charge may be true. Romans

150 THE ROMAN WORLD : 30 B.C. TO A.D. 138 [PT. II

Gaius reacted ruthlessly. Gemellus was executed in May 38, and throughout the remainder of that year and the next the aristocratic partisans of the Claudian family were sought out under the laws of treason, specially revived for the purpose, and executed. In Philo's words, Gaius became the enemy of the whole Claudian house. Meanwhile he used the full treasury left by Tiberius to keep the populace amused with shows and to go ahead with military preparations.