Direct and indirect shoot organogenesis from leaves of Torenia fournieri
Plant regeneration in tissue culture is a crucial aspect of plant biotechnology as it facilitates the production of genetically engineered plants, the release of disease-free plants from meristem cultures, and the rapid multiplication of difficult-to-propagate species. Plant regeneration through tissue culture can be accomplished by enhanced axillary branching from shoots or lateral buds, somatic embryogenesis, embryo culture, or organogenesis. Torenia fournieri is commonly called the wishbone flower, bluewings, or torenia. Wishbone flower refers to the shape and position of the stamens that arch together, similar to a chicken wishbone, and fuse at the anther. This chapter describes techniques to demonstrate direct and indirect shoot organogenesis from leaf sections of torenia. Torenia can be propagated by shoot cuttings of established plants or from seed that can be obtained from most commercial seed companies. Indirect organogenesis is the production of shoots or roots from callus — an amorphous mass of loosely arranged thin-walled, differentiated parenchyma cells.