Vitrification as a method to cryopreserve shoot tips
This chapter demonstrates the use of vitrification as a method for cryopreservation. Vitrification does not require a controlled cooling rate apparatus and easily can be performed at any location. The chapter describes both a solution-based method and an encapsulation-desiccation method. It focuses on two experiments which demonstrate the use of vitrification for shoot tip cryopreservation. The encapsulation-dehydration method has been extensively studied by Dereuddre and associates and has been applied to several species. The solution-based method uses a vitrification solution devised by Sakai and researchers for plant cells and shoot tips. The dilution medium is used for removing the vitrification solution from shoot tips and is composed of Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and vitamins, 1.2 M sucrose, and 100 mg/L myo-inositol. The encapsulation-dehydration method prepares a liquid medium 3% sodium alginate in a MS minerals and vitamins solution modified by omitting calcium.