Photographic methods for plant cell and tissue culture*
Plant cell and tissue culture inherently is based on direct visual observation, unlike other disciplines, such as molecular genetics, virology, and physiology, where results from experiments often are abstract. This chapter describes the use of equipment, supplies, and techniques that are required for basic photographic documentation. Several different photographic techniques are required in order to document various aspects of plant cell and tissue culture. Because objects of interest vary greatly in size and type, but often are very small, equipment to accomplish both macro- and microphotography is required. A stereomicroscope or "dissecting scope" allows the surface morphology of a specimen to be examined. Because specimens often possess much surface relief, the ability to photograph a wide depth of field is essential in stereomicrography. A compound microscope is used when smaller objects such as early-stage embryos or cells, or the internal structure of cells and tissues must be examined.