Chocolate and Confectionery Fats
This chapter focuses on the use of fats in chocolate, although mention is made of other relevant applications including cream fillings, toffee, and ice cream couvertures. Fats are widely used in the confectionery industry mainly to convey specific textural attributes and as a vehicle for fat-soluble flavors. The application that has received most scientific attention has been in the area of chocolate and chocolate substitutes for ambient confectionery. The main component of chocolate is derived from the cocoa bean, whose continuing attraction is due to its flavor and melting characteristics. Chocolate used in molding processes needs to exhibit good contraction prior to demolding. There are two basic forms of bloom that appear on chocolate, sugar bloom and fat bloom. Sugar bloom arise on the surface of products produced under conditions that promote moisture condensation on the surface of the product as it emerges from the cooling tunnel.