The Development of High Performance Concrete in North America
In North America, the development of high performance concrete is closely associated with the construction of columns and shear walls in high-rise buildings. This chapter discusses the characteristics of the modern high-rise buildings built in North America with high-performance concrete to illustrate the latest technological developments that have been stunning the concrete industry. In order to show the technological evolution that has so drastically changed the concrete industry in North America, the chapter provides four case studies in which high performance concrete was used. They are: Water Tower Place built in 1975 in Chicago; the Nova Scotia Plaza built in 1987–88 in Toronto, Canada; the Two Union Square Building, built in 1988–89 in Seattle, Washington; and One Wacker Place, under construction in Chicago. It is clear that high performance concrete will be used increasingly for high-rise buildings throughout the United States, forcing concrete producers to learn how to make concrete whose water/cement ratio will continue to drop.