Applying the lessons of Indian vernacular architecture: the bungalow
The ﬁrst British citizens in India were merchants rather than settlers. Until the mideighteenth century, most Britons spent a brief career in India living in the East India Company’s fortiﬁed ‘factories’ on the edges of the country. These factories were in an urban setting, either inside newly constructed forts, for security purposes, or in converted native buildings (Figure 8.1). They were fortiﬁed compounds containing accommodations, ofﬁces and storehouses, which have been described as ‘the commercial counterpart of a University college’, where ‘even the chiefs were rarely accompanied by their wives, and the others were not expected to marry . . . Meals were taken in common . . . there were daily prayers, and the gates were closed at stated hours’ (Roberts, 1952).