Environmentally responsive architecture for rural Northern Ireland
In this climate solar radiation has signiﬁcant seasonal variations. Lowest irradiance is in December, with averages up to 100W/m2 on the horizontal and a maximum of 260W/m2; the highest is in May with an average of 420W/m2 and a maximum of 880W/m2. The low sun angle in winter permits direct solar radiation deep into buildings and may be a potential heat source. The heating season is long, but the temperature to be made up is relatively small. There is no signiﬁcant cooling season as overheating in summer can be accommodated with natural ventilation.